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Marine Products

Marine Products

India is the third-largest fish and aquaculture-producing country. It accounts for 7.96% of the total global fish production. The industry employs more than 28 million people in India.
Marine resources of India constitute a coastline of 8118 kms, Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 2.02 million sq. mt., and a continental shelf area of 0.53 sq. mt. The inland resources include 0.27 million kms of rivers and canals, 2.45 million hectares of ponds, 3.15 million hectares of tanks, and 1.2 million hectares of floodplain lakes.
In 2020-21, India's total marine and inland fish production stood at 14.73 million metric tonne (MMT), which includes 11.25 MMT and 3.48 MMT from inland and marine sectors, respectively. Fisheries sector plays a crucial role in the national economy and is one of the key contributors to the country's foreign exchange earnings. In 2020-21, 66% of the Marine Fisheries and 51% of the Inland Fisheries potential were harnessed. The overall production of marine products in India has been growing consistently for the last ten years. Total fish production grew from 8.67 MMT in 2011-12 to 14.73 MMT in 2020-21.
India mainly has eight major fish-producing states: Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of marine products with 2019-20 production at 4.2 million MT. The share of Gujarat, Karnataka, Odisha and Maharshtra during the same period was 6%, 4.5%, 5.8% and 4%, respectively.
India is among the top 5 fish exporting countries in the world. About 17% of India's agricultural exports are fish and fish products. In 2021-22, the country exported marine products of quantity 1.36 million MT. The value of exports for the same year was US$ 7.76 billion. This is an increase of about 30% over previous year. This is a great achievement considering the challenges posed by the Covid-19 pandemic and other difficulties related to logistics.
India mainly exports frozen shrimps, fish, cuttlefish, squids, dried items, live and chilled items. Out of these, frozen shrimp is the largest exported marine product contributing to more than 53% of the total quantity and about 75.11% of the total export US$ value.
In 2021-22, the frozen fish, cuttlefish and squid contributed 6.08%, 3.61% and 4.94% of the total marine products export value, respectively. The same contributed to 16.55%, 4.31% and 5.53% of the total quantity exported in the same year.
Marine exports from India are expected to reach US$ 14 billion by 2025. The Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) has already proposed a roadmap to achieve this target, which constitutes necessary steps to enhance production and promote seafood.
India exports fish and fish products primarily to the following regions - USA, China, EU, South East Asia, Japan and Middle East.
In 2021-22, with an import of US$ 3,371.66 million and a share of 37.56% in terms of dollar value, the USA remained the largest importer of Indian seafood both in terms of value and volume. Exports to the US increased in terms of volume by 27.63%, rupee value by 36.76%, and dollar revenue by 37.56%. The main product shipped to the USA was frozen shrimp.
With an import of 2,66,989 MT worth US$ 1,175.05 million, or 19.50% in terms of quantity and 15.14% in terms of dollars, China became the second-largest seafood export market from India in terms of volume. Exports to China increased in volume by 22.28%, rupee value by 31.09%, and dollar value by 25.12%.
The EU remained India's third-largest export market for seafood, with frozen shrimp continuing to grow in both quantity and value, respectively, by 29.11% and 37.09%.
a) Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY)
The PMMSY was introduced in 2020 with an earmarked investment of Rs. 20,050 crores (US$ 2.53 billion), to increase the productivity, production capacity, and area under cultivation and to increase the exports of marine products in India. The Central Government's share in PMMSY is Rs. 9,407 crores (US$ 1.12 billion), the State's share is Rs. 4,880 crores (US$ 617 million), and the beneficiaries' share is Rs. 5,763 crores (US$ 729 million). The objective of the scheme is to increase the fish production to 22 million MT by 2024-25, enhance aquaculture productivity to 5 tonnes per hectare and increase the GVA contribution of the fisheries sector to 9% by 2024-25.
b) Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF)
In 2018-19, the Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying formed a fund called the Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying (FIDF) to meet the infrastructure requirement of the fisheries sector. The total fund size is Rs. 7,522.48 crores (US$ 951 million). The objective of the fund is to provide concessional finance to eligible entities like State Governments/Union Territories and State entities for developing the identified fisheries infrastructure through loaning entities namely - National Cooperatives Development Corporation (NCDC), National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), and all scheduled banks.
The Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA)
The MPEDA was formed in 1972 for the development of the seafood industry in India and to realize its full export potential. The focus of MPEDA is on market promotion, capturing fisheries, research and development, quality control, infrastructure processing and value addition. The authority also advises the central government for setting new standards for fishing vessels, storage premises, processing plants and conveyances.
Department of Fisheries (DoF)
The DoF was formed in 2019 by dividing the fisheries division from the now known as the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries. The department's roles are developing the fish industry, promoting fisheries and the welfare of fishermen, statistics, regulations, and carrying out surveys.

Source: India Brand Equity Foundation

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